If you look closely, there are many resemblances between the peoples of the Westeros and historical civilizations. Obviously, the Iron Islands/Greyjoy are the easiest - as semi-civilized ship raiders they remind me of the Vikings. The North reminds me of the more civilized germanic kingdoms after the fall of Rome (for example the Goths under Theoderic). A major military power, but not strong at diplomacy or political intrigue. Very similar feudal code of honor. Dorne reminds me of Moorish Spain. Highgarden - because it is such a cultivated and rich place - reminds me of the Italian City States during the Renaissance. Also because of their talent to choose the wrong allies or to change allegiances if this is sensible (Renly - Stannis - Lannister - in real history: the German emperors, France, Spain ..). The Lannister Empire - reminds me of medieval France (after the 100 years war) or England (under Eward I. or Richard Lionheart ) - rich country, major military power, skilled in diplomacy and intrigue. The Wildlings - remind me very much of the scottish highlanders (without the kilts and Bonnie Prince Charlie) The Dothtraki - seems to me that they are very much like the historical Huns or Mongols. Any other suggestions ?