Kingdom of Heaven

Discussion in 'Reviews' started by Mububban, May 2, 2005.

  1. Mububban

    Mububban Administrator Staff Member

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    Myself and about 20 friends from The Grey Company, a dark ages (800-1100AD) re-enactment group, were lucky enough to see Kingdom of Heaven last night at an advance screening. We got to put on some Crusader vs Saracen battles for the crowd's entertainment, then see the movie for free! Mind you, a 2hr 20min movie wearing 35lb of chainmail ain't too comfy :)

    Kingdom of Heaven is really good, a very impressive achievement. Ridley Scott's done a fine job of recreating an old city teeming with life. My dark ages re-enacting group, who portray a period only 80 years or so before this movie is set, were all REALLY impressed with the gorgeous costumes and armour and weapons. This stuff is amazing. Foot soldiers wear gambesons, lords wear chainmail and intricately acid etched helmets, and the Saracen armour is simply beautiful stuff.
    FYI, WETA workshop made the staggering amount of chainmail seen in this movie using their PVC pipe method, you can tell from the square edges on the rings. But closeup "hero" shots have rounded real metal link chain mail.

    The story revolves around Balian of Ibelin (Orlando Bloom), the illegitimate son of Godfrey of Ibelin (Liam Neeson). After losing his wife and child, he joins his newly discovered father on the road to Jerusalem, where they both seek peace and absolution for their sins.
    Along the way, Balian becomes a knight, becomes known to the Saracens (Muslims) as a good decent man, and ends up having to defend the city from the Saracen army of 200,000 lead by the great Saracen general Salah-Adin (Saladin) after the delicate peace between the leper king Baldwin and Saladin breaks down after Baldwin's death.

    Personally I'm not fond of battle scenes filmed so close up that you can't see what people are actually doing. But the army scenes were really well done, as were the siege scenes at Jerusalem.

    Orlando Bloom's character may seem like an amazingly gifted fighter and general after starting as a humble blacksmith, but keep in mind there's a 3 year gap between joining his father's troupe and the big final battle. One can assume that a noble's son, and then the noble himself, would be schooled in all the facets of warfare.
    And it very realistically shows him getting his ass kicked in some way in just about every fight. In big battles it's almost impossible to get up close and personal with the enemy and not gets a few scrapes and bruises.

    One minor gripe is that personally I don't think Orlando Bloom had quite enough screen oomph to deliver some of the stirring lines that were expected of him. But he still did a good job.

    The rest of the cast were great. It had a lot of big names but apart from Orlando, this wasn't a real "star vehicle" movie. It's rare to find a serious movie that remains serious and doesn't drop in a comic relief sidekick just for laughs. In fact I don't think I laughed once in this movie, except the priest's line near the end of the movie as he's trying to save his own skin.

    The CGI was seamless, I honestly couldn't pick anything that looked fake. Mind you, our free seats were at the very front row of the cinema :) Next time we see it I'd like to be a few rows back!

    For fans of catapaults and trebuchets, my god those things really shake the cinema as they're hurling huge stones at the city walls. Especially when they focus their fire on one point of the wall. This movie better than any other really shows trebuchets as the cannons of the age that they were.

    Apparently the conservative Christian element in America who've seen advanced screenings were up in arms about the negative portrayal of the Christians as bloodthirsty warmongers, and they're upset that Muslims are portrayed as the peacemakers. Rubbish. Leaving aside the fact that the Christian Crusaders acted like bloodthirsty barbarian animals during their crusades to capture Jerusalem, in this movie, both sides have generals and/or kings who want peace, both sides have stirrers who want war to claim more land and money and sley their godless enemies, both sides have religious leaders saying "This war is God's will!" And both sides have armies who have to follow orders and die when they're told. I felt it was less anti-western than, say, The Last Samurai. It's another movie in the recent trend of non-biased war movies. It's just a movie about what happened, viewed from both sides, albeit with some fictional elements for movie needs.
    And it was good to see ALL the Saracens being played by Muslims, and not western stars.

    Go see this movie. There's nothing I can think of that wasn't really good. And we're going to see it for free again tomorrow as well.
     
  2. Mububban

    Mububban Administrator Staff Member

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    Interesting:

    MUSLIMS CALL NEW FOX CRUSADER FILM 'BALANCED'
    CAIR says 'Kingdom of Heaven' avoids negative stereotypes

    (WASHINGTON, D.C., 4/25/05) - A prominent national Islamic civil rights and advocacy group said today that the new 20th Century Fox epic "Kingdom of Heaven" is a "balanced" portrayal of the Crusades, despite earlier concerns that the film might offer stereotypical portrayals of Islam or Muslims.

    The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) based its judgment on a private screening of the Sir Ridley Scott film at Fox studios in Los Angeles. "Kingdom" is scheduled to open in theaters nationwide May 6th.

    Representatives of CAIR's Southern California office (CAIR-LA) and the group's national headquarters took part in the screening. They said the film, which focuses on the 12th century period between the Second and Third Crusades, highlights the humanity of characters on both sides of that centuries-long conflict.

    "Our overall impression is that 'Kingdom of Heaven' is a balanced and positive depiction of Islamic culture during the Crusades," said CAIR-LA Communications Director Sabiha Khan. "Muslims are shown as dignified and proud people whose lives are based on ethics and morality." Khan said one of the film's positive messages, that Muslims and Christians can live together in peace, will provide an opportunity for increased interfaith dialogue.

    "It is unfortunately a rare occasion when a Muslim filmgoer can leave the theater feeling good about a movie's portrayal of Islam," said CAIR National Communications Coordinator Rabiah Ahmed, who also attended the Los Angles screening. "This film managed to show the horrors of war without associating those horrors with a particular faith or culture." Ahmed thanked Fox for its screening of the film and for taking care to avoid religious stereotypes.

    Earlier this year, CAIR met with Fox television network officials over concerns about the depiction of a "Muslim" family at the heart of a terror plot in the drama series "24."
     
  3. Mububban

    Mububban Administrator Staff Member

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    A bit of light reading a friend dug up :

    Balian of Ibelin (died 1193) was an important noble of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century. He was the son of Barisan of Ibelin and brother of Hugh and Baldwin. His original name was also Barisan, but the pronunciation of the name changed to "Balian" in the course of the 12th century; he is sometimes known as Balian the Younger when his father is also referred to as Balian. He is also called Balian of Ramla or Balian of Nablus.

    After the death of Hugh in 1150, the castle of Ibelin passed to Baldwin, who then gave it to Balian, preferring to remain lord of Ramla. Balian and Baldwin supported Raymond III of Tripoli over Miles of Plancy as regent for Baldwin IV in 1174, and in 1177 the brothers were present at the Battle of Montgisard. That year he also married Maria Comnena, widow of King Amalric I, and received the lordship of Nablus.

    In 1183 Balian and his brother supported Raymond against Guy of Lusignan, husband of Sibylla of Jerusalem and by now regent for the ailing Baldwin IV. Balian was present at the coronation ceremony of Baldwin V in 1183, while Baldwin IV was still alive; this was an attempt to prevent Guy from succeeding as king. Baldwin V became king while still a child in 1185, but when the young king died in 1186, Raymond’s choice for the kingship, Humphrey IV of Toron, refused the crown and joined Guy. Balian reluctantly paid homage to Guy, while his brother refused to do so and exiled himself to Antioch.

    Balian remained in the kingdom and escaped the defeat at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. He helped negotiate the defense of Jerusalem and its subsequent surrender to Saladin in October. Ibelin, Nablus, and Ramla and all of Balian's other territories were captured by Saladin after Hattin, but Balian and his family were permitted to flee to Tripoli. He at first supported Guy in the struggle for the kingship against Conrad of Montferrat, but then conspired with Maria to have Conrad marry Isabella of Jerusalem, Maria's daughter from her marriage to Amalric, giving Conrad a stronger claim to the kingdom. After Conrad's death and Isabella's remarriage to Henry II of Champagne, Balian remained one of Henry's advisors, and in 1192 he helped negotiate the treaty between Richard I of England and Saladin, ending the Third Crusade. Ibelin remained under Saladin's control but Richard gave Balian a new lordship at Caymont instead.

    He died in 1193. His son John of Ibelin was Lord of Beirut and constable of Jerusalem.

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    Saladin, Sultan / Military Leader

    Born: 1138
    Birthplace: Takrit, Mesopotamia (now Iraq)
    Death: 1193
    Best Known As: The man who took back Jerusalem
    Name at birth: Salah ad-Din Al-Ayyubi

    Revered as a hero of Islam, Saladin united Arab forces and recaptured the holy city of Jerusalem from Christian Crusaders in the 12th century A.D. Of Kurdish origin, Saladin became the vizier of Egypt in 1169 and then took full control of the country in 1171; he later built the famed Citadel in Cairo. His conquest of Jerusalem in 1188 prompted the Third Crusade, led by Richard I of England; Richard's forces defeated Saladin in several battles, but could not retake Jerusalem. Saladin and Richard signed an armistice in 1192, and the two are often linked in histories of the era.

    Saladin's successors in Egypt are known by his family name: the Ayyubids

    ---------------------------------

    Guy of Lusignan (lüsēnyäN') , d. 1194, Latin king of Jerusalem (1186–92) and Cyprus (1192–94), second husband of Sibylla, sister of King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem. In 1183 he was briefly regent for his brother-in-law, who was incapacitated by leprosy, but Baldwin made Guy's stepson king as Baldwin V, and the Latin nobles forced Guy to yield command to Raymond of Tripoli. On Baldwin V's death (1186) Guy became king with the support of both his wife and Reginald of Châtillon. He was defeated and captured (1187) by Saladin at the decisive battle of Hattin, which led to the fall of Jerusalem. Released in 1188, he laid siege (1189) to Acre (see Akko), which was captured (1191) in the Third Crusade with the help of Richard I of England and Philip II of France. After the death (1190) of Sibylla, Guy's right to the throne was contested by Conrad, marquis of Montferrat, who was supported by Philip II. In spite of Richard I's support, Guy was compelled (1192) to resign his title, but was given the island of Cyprus. His descendants (see Lusignan) ruled Cyprus and Lesser Armenia. His brother, Amalric II, succeeded him in Cyprus.

    -----------------------------------

    Sibylla of Jerusalem (c. 1160 - 1190) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190. She was the eldest daughter of Amalric I of Jerusalem and Agnes of Edessa and sister of Baldwin IV. She was the paternal granddaughter of Queen Melisende. Though her mother's marriage to her father was annulled, the church ruled that she was the legitimate heir to her father King Amalric.


    Dynasty
    Sibylla was raised by her great-aunt, the abbess Ioveta of Bethany. Melisende founded the well-appointed convent in 1138 for her sister Ioveta to rule as abbess, and died there in 1163. In the convent Sibylla was taught scripture and other church traditions. In her childhood she was not close to her mother Agnes. Mother and daughter would become closer later in life, however, as Agnes's political suporters would in turn gravitate towards Sibylla.

    Once her brother became king as Baldwin IV, she was his heir and her choice of husband became a paramount concern in the kingdom. Raymond III of Tripoli, in his capacity of regent during Baldwin's minority, arranged for Sibylla to marry William Longsword of Montferret, newly created count of Jaffa and Ascalon. In autumn 1176 they were married. William died in June of 1177, leaving Sibylla widowed and pregnant. Sibylla named her son Baldwin (the future Baldwin V), in the tradition of the dynasty.

    The widowed princess remained a prize for ambitious nobles and adventurers seeking to advance themselves and take control of Jerusalem. Philip of Flanders arrived in 1177 and demanded to have Sibylla married to one of his own vassals. Philip was himself a distant cousin of Sibylla, and by marrying her to his vassal he could control the kingship of Jerusalem. The Haute Cour of Jerusalem, the royal council, led by Baldwin of Ibelin, rebuffed Philip's advances. In disgrace Philip left Jerusalem to campaign in Antioch. Additionally, the Ibelin family manoeuvered to have the princess marry one of their own. At Easter, 1180, Raymond III of Tripoli (the former regent) and Bohemund III of Antioch entered the kingdom with the intent of choosing a husband for Sibylla themselves.


    Baldwin IV's reign
    Agnes of Courtenay, now back at court after having been exiled when her marriage to Amalric I was annulled, advised her son to have Sibylla married to the newly-arrived Frankish knight Guy of Lusignan, her client. Guy offered Agnes his loyalty, in exchange Agnes promoted his interests. By this Agnes hoped to foil any atempt by Raymond and Bohemund, her political rivals, from marrying her daughter into the rival court faction.

    Sibylla bore her new husband two daughters, Alice and Maria. By all accounts their marriage was a happy one, for when Baldwin IV deposed Guy as his regent in 1183, and attempted to have the marriage annuled in 1184, Sibylla refused to participate. Though her husband was in disgrace for his behaviour as regent, there seems to be little evidence that Sibylla herself was held in disfavour.

    The princess' loyaty to her husband did cost her place in the order of succession. Guy had become very unpopular and the king could not let him have even an indirect influence in government. Agnes proposed a compromise that would place Baldwin V above Sibylla in the order of succession, with Raymond III of Tripoli acting as regent for Baldwin V, though this compromise would allow Agnes' own political rival Raymond more influence in government.

    Agnes died at her estates in Acre, sometime in 1184. Baldwin IV himself would expire in early 1185, leaving Sibylla's son as king. During this time Saladin's army continued its invasion of the kingdom.

    Baldwin V died by early 1186, leaving Sibylla as his heir. Initially, the compromise of 1183 allowed for the Haute Cour and Western lords to decide who should be next monarch, Sibylla or her half-sister Isabella. Had Sibylla not been married to Guy she would have become queen.


    Succession
    Sibylla attended her son's funeral, arranged by her uncle Joscelin III of Courtenay. With her was an armed escort, with which she garrisoned Jerusalem. Raymond III, who was jealous to protect his own influence and his new political ally, the dowager-queen Maria Comnena, was making arrangements to summon the Haute Cour when Sibylla was crowned queen by Patriarch Heraclius. Raynald of Chatillon gained popular support for Sibylla by affirming that she was "li plus apareissanz et plus dreis heis dou romoame". With the clear suport of the church Sibylla was undisputed soverign.

    Sibylla was crowned alone, as sole Queen. Bernard Hamilton wrote "there is no real doubt, following the precedent of Melisende, that Sibylla, as the elder daughter of King Amalric, had the best claim to the throne; equally, there could be no doubt after the ceremony that Guy only held the crown matrimonial." However, before she was crowned she agreed with oppositional court members that she would annull her marriage to please them, as long as she would be given free choice in her next husband. The leaders of the Haute Cour agreed, and Sibylla was crowned thereafter. Taking her choice as husband, to the astonishment of the rival court faction, she remarried Guy. The queen granted Guy the crown matrimonial. Humphrey IV of Toron, princess Isabella's husband, disassociated himself from the Ibelins and swore fealty to Sibylla, wrecking their plans to hold a rival coronation for Isabella. Many of the opposition barons soon followed suite, with the Ibelins (save Baldwin of Ibelin, who left the kingdom, never to return) and dowager-queen last.


    Sibylla's reign
    Sibylla had shown great cunning and political prowess in her dealings with the members of the opposition faction. She inherited her mother's factional suporters and the Courtenays, while her rivals were led by her step-mother, the dowager-queen Maria, in Nablus, as well as the Ibelin family and Raymond III of Tripoli.

    The queen's chief concern was to check the advance of Saladin's armies as they advanced into the kingdom. Guy was dispatched to the front but was taken prisoner at the Battle of Hattin on July 4, 1187. The dowager-queen joined her step-daughter in Jerusalem as Saladin's army advanced. By September, 1187, Saladin was beseiging the Holy City, and the queen personally led the defense, along with Patriarch Heraclius and Balian of Ibelin, who had survived Hattin. Jerusalem capitulated on October 2, and Sibylla was permitted to escape to Tripoli with her daughters.


    Death
    Guy was released from his imprisonment in Damascus in 1188, and the queen joined him when they marched on Tyre, the only city in the kingdom that had not fallen. Conrad of Montferrat, who took charge of the city's defenses, denided them entrance. After months spent outside the city's walls, the queen followed Guy when he led a vanguard of the newly arrived Third Crusade. The queen followed her husband to Acre, where he was beseiging the city. There, on July 25, 1190, the queen died of an epidemic which was sweeping through the camp. Her daughters also died of the same epidemic. Bernard Hamilton wrote "had Sibylla lived in more peaceful times she would have excercised a great deal of of power since her husband's authority patently derived from her," and that only the conquest by Saladin brought her rule to a speedy end.


    Sources
    Medieval Woman, edited by Derek Baker. Ecclesiatical History Society, 1978

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    Reginald of Châtillon (shätēyôN') , d. 1187, Crusader, lord of Krak and Montreal in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. He came to the Holy Land in the Second Crusade and married (1153) Constance, daughter of Bohemond II of Antioch. He was energetic, impulsive, and intolerant, and his quarrels with the Latin princes weakened the position of the Crusaders. In 1159, after plotting with the Armenian prince, Thoros, against Emperor Manuel II of Byzantium, he was forced to submit to the emperor. Captured (1160) by the Saracens, he remained a prisoner over 15 years. After his release he took as his second wife the heiress of Krak and Montreal, and in 1177 he became procurator of Jerusalem for a brief period. In 1182–83 he raided the Red Sea coast. With Guy of Lusignan, whom he influenced and also helped to install as king of Jerusalem in 1186, Reginald advocated a belligerent and disastrous policy against Saladin and opposed the conciliatory attitude of Raymond of Tripoli. His attack (1187) on one of Saladin's caravans violated his truce with the sultan and helped to bring on Saladin's attack on the Christians. Reginald was captured at the battle of Hattin and was executed by the sultan's own hand.

    Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynald or Reginald of Chastillon) (died July 4 1187) was a knight who served in the Second Crusade and remained in the Holy Land after its defeat. There he ruled as Prince of Antioch from 1153 to 1160.
    He was a younger son of Henry, lord of Châtillon, from the middle-ranking noble family of Champagne that had produced Eudes of Châtillon, Pope Urban II.

    Raynald entered into the service of Constance of Antioch and was chosen to be her husband in 1153, four years after the death of her first husband, Raymund. One of Raynald's first acts in Antioch was an assault on the Latin Patriarch; two years later he attacked Cyprus, ravaging the island. Cyprus was a possession of the Byzantine Empire, and in 1159 Raynald was forced to pay homage to Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus as punishment for his attack, promising to accept a Greek Patriarch in Antioch. When Manuel came to Antioch later that year to meet with Baldwin III, King of Jerusalem, Raynald was forced to lead Manuel's horse into the city.

    Soon after this, in 1160, Raynald was captured by the Muslims during a plundering raid against the Syrian and Armenian peasants of the neighbourhood of Marash. He was confined at Aleppo for the next seventeen years. After his released in 1176, he married Stephanie, the widow of both Humphrey III of Toron and Miles of Plancy, and the heiress of the lordship of Oultrejordain, including the castles Kerak and Montreal to the southeast of the Dead Sea. These fortresses controlled the trade routes between Egypt and Damascus and gave Raynald access to the Red Sea.

    In November 1177, at the head of the army of the kingdom, he defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard; Saladin narrowly escaped. In 1181 the temptation of the caravans which passed by Kerak proved too strong, and, in spite of a truce between Saladin and Baldwin IV, Raynald began to plunder. Saladin demanded reparations from Baldwin IV, but Baldwin could only reply that he was unable to coerce his unruly vassal. The result was a new outbreak of war between Saladin and the Latin kingdom in 1182. In the course of the hostilities Raynald launched ships on the Red Sea, partly for piracy, but partly as a threat against Mecca, challenging Islam in its own holy place. His ships were captured by one of Saladin's officers, and at the end of the year Saladin attacked Kerak, during the marriage of Raynald's stepson Humphrey IV of Toron to Isabella of Jerusalem. The siege was raised by Count Raymond III of Tripoli, and Reynald was quiet until 1186.

    That year he allied with Sibylla and Guy of Lusignan against Count Raymond, and his influence contributed to the recognition of Guy as king of Jerusalem, although Raymond was the better candidate. Later in 1186 Raynald attacked a caravan in which Saladin's sister was travelling, breaking the truce between Saladin and the Crusaders. King Guy chastised Raynald in an attempt to appease Saladin, but Raynald replied that he was lord of his own lands and that he had made no peace with Saladin. Saladin swore that Raynald would be executed if he was ever taken prisoner.

    In 1187 Saladin invaded the kingdom, defeating the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin. The battle left Saladin with many prisoners. Most prominent among these prisoners were Reynald and King Guy, both of whom Saladin ordered brought to his tent. According to al-Safadi in al-Wafi bi'l-wafayat, Saladin offered water to Guy, who then gave the glass to Raynald. Saladin knocked the water away, saying that he had not offered water to Raynald and thus was not bound by the Muslim rules of hospitality. After being rebuked by Saladin for his treachery, Raynald was executed, either beheaded by Saladin himself or killed by one of Saladin's men in the presence of his companions. King Guy, however, was spared. Saladin explained that one king did not kill another and that Raynald had only been executed because of his great crimes. Guy was taken to Damascus for a time, then allowed to go free.

    Many of the Crusaders considered Raynald a martyr, although all evidence shows him to have been a plunderer and a pirate who had little concern for the welfare of the Kingdom. The successes of the Kingdom were almost singlehandedly undone by Raynald's recklessness and selfishness.

    Raynald and Constance had two daughters: Agnes, who married king Bela III of Hungary; and Alix, who married Azzo V d'Este.

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  4. Mububban

    Mububban Administrator Staff Member

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    Account of the Battle of Hattin, 1187
    by a local Frank, "Ernoul", written soon after 1197


    Now I will tell you about King Guy and his host. They left the spring of Saffuriya to go to the relief of Tiberias. As soon as they had left the water behind, Saladin came before them and ordered his skirmishers to harass them from morning until midday. The heat was so great that they could not go on so that they could come to water. The king and all the other people were spread out and did not know what to do. They could not turn back for the losses would have been too great. He sent to the count of Tripoli, who led the advance guard, to ask advice as to what to do. He sent word that he should pitch his tent and make camp. The king gladly accepted this bad advice. When (the count) had given him good advice he would never take it. Some people in the host said that if the Christians had gone on to meet the Saracens, Saladin would have been defeated.

    As soon as they were encamped, Saladin ordered all his men to collect brushwood, dry grass, stubble and anything else with which they could light fires, and make barriers which he had made all round the Christians. They soon did this, and the fires burned vigorously and the smoke from the fires was great; and this, together with the heat of the sun above them caused them discomfort and great harm. Saladin had commanded caravans of camels loaded with water from the Sea of Tiberias to be brought up and had water pots placed near the camp. The water pots were then emptied in view of the Christians so that they should have still greater anguish through thirst, and their mounts too. A strange thing happened in the Christian host the day they were encamped at the spring of Saffuriya, for the horses refused to drink the water either at night or in the morning, and because of their thirst they were to fail their masters when they most needed them. Then a knight named Geoffrey of Franc Leuc went to the king and said, `Sire, it is now high time for you to make the poleins with their beards dear to the men of your country (i.e. Poitou)'.[1] It was one of the causes of the hatred between King Guy and the Poitevins and those of this land, that the men of that land sang a song in Jerusalem which greatly annoyed the men of the kingdom. The song went:

    Maugré li polein,
    Aurons nous roi Poiteven.

    [`Despite the poleins,
    we shall have a Poitevin king.']

    This hatred and scorn led to the loss of the kingdom of Jerusalem.

    When the fires were lit and the smoke was great, the Saracens surrounded the host and shot their darts through the smoke and so wounded and killed men and horses. When the king saw the disadvantageous position the host was in, he called the master of the Temple and Prince Raynald and told them to give him their advice. They conselled him that he must fight the Saracens. He ordered his brother Aimery, who was the constable,[2] to organise the squadrons. He organised them as best he could. The count of Tripoli who led the advance guard at their arrival led the first division and was in front. This division included Raymond, the son of the prince of Antioch, with all his company and the four sons of the lady of Tiberias, Hugh, William, Ralph and Otto.[3] Balian of Ibelin and Count Joscelin made up the rear guard. Just as the divisions were being put in position and the battle lines ordered, five knights from the count of Tripoli's division left him and went to Saladin and said, `Sire, what are you doing? Go and take the Christians for they are all defeated'. When he heard these words he ordered his squadron to move forward, and they moved off and approached the Christians. When the king was aware that Saladin was coming against him he ordered the count of Tripoli to charge. It is the right of the barons of the kingdom that when there is a host summoned by the king (ost banie) in their lordship, the baron on whose land the battle is to take place leads the first division and is out in front, and on entering his land leads the advance guard and on leaving leads the rear guard. Because of this the count of Tripoli took the forward position, since Tiberias was his. The count and his division charged at a large squadron of Saracens. The Saracens parted and made a way through and let them pass; then, when they were in the middle of them, they surrounded them. Only 10 or 12 knights from the count's division escaped them. Among those who escaped were the count of Tripoli and Raymond, son of the prince of Antioch, and the four sons of the lady of Tiberias. When the count saw that they were defeated he did not dare go to Tiberias which was only 2 miles away, for he feared that if he shut himself up in there and Saladin found out he could come and take him. He went off with what company he had and went to the city of Tyre. After this division had been defeated the anger of God was so great against the Christian host because of their sins that Saladin vanquished them quickly; between the hours of tierce and nones[4] he had won almost all the field. He captured the king, the Master of the Temple, Prince Raynald, Marquis Boniface, Aimery the constable, Humphrey of Toron, Hugh of Gibelet, Plivain, lord of Botron, and so many other barons and knights that it would take too long to give the names of all of them; the Holy Cross also was lost. Later, in the time of Count Henry (of Champagne, "Lord of the Kingdom of Jerusalem" 1192-7), a brother of the Temple came to him and said that he had been at the great defeat and had buried the Holy Cross and knew well where it was; if he had an escort he would go and look for it. Count Henry gave him his leave and an escort. They went secretly and dug for three nights but could not find anything; then they returned to the city of Acre.

    This disaster befell Christendom at a place called the Horns of Hattin (Karnehatin) 4 miles from Tiberias on Saturday 4 July 1187, the feast of St. Martin le Boillant,[5] Pope Urban III (1185-7) governing the apostolic see of the church of Rome, Frederick (I Barbarossa) being emperor in Germany, Philip (II Augustus), son of Louis (VII), king of France, Henry (II) au Cort Mantiau, king of England, and Isaac (II), emperor in Constantinople. the news of it struck the hearts of those faithful to Jesus Christ. Pope Urban who was at Ferrara died of grief when he heard the news. After him (the pope) was Gregory VIII who was of saintly life and only held the (papal) see for two months before he died and went to God. After Gregory came Clement III (1187-91) to whom Archibishop Josias of Tyre brought a truthful account of the news as you will find written below. [6] When Saladin had left the field with great joy and great victory and was in his camp, he ordered all the Christian prisoners who had been captured that day to be brought before him. They brought to him first the king, the master of the Temple, Prince Raynald, Marquis Boniface,[7] Humphrey of Toron, Aimery the constable, Hugh of Gibelet and several other knights. When he was them all together before him he told the king that he would have great joy and would consider himself greatly honoured now that he had in his power such valuable prisoners as the King of Jerusalem, the Master of the Temple and the other barons. He ordered that a syrup diluted with water in a cup of gold be brought. He tasted it, then gave it to the king to drink, saying: "Drink deeply". The king drank, like a man who was extremely thirsty, then handed the cup on to Prince Raynald.[8] Prince Raynald would not drink. When Saladin saw that he had handed the cup to Prince Raynald, he was irrittated and told him: "Drink, for you will never drink again!". The prince replied that if it pleased God, he would never drink or eat anything of his (Saladin's). Saladin asked him: "Prince Raynald, if you held me in your prison as I now hold you in mine, what, by your law, would you do to me?". "So help me God", he replied, "I would cut off your head". Saladin was greatly enraged at this most insolent reply, and said: "Pig! You are my prisoner, yet you answer me so arrogantly?". He took a sword in his hand and thrust it right through his body. The mamluks who were standing by rushed at him and cut off his head. Saladin took some of the blood and sprinkled it on his head in recognition that he had taken vengeance on him. Then he ordered that they carry the head to Damascus, and it was dragged along the ground to show the Saracens whom the prince had wronged what vengeance he had had. Then he commanded the king and the other prisoners to be taken to Damascus, where they were put in prison as was appropriate for them.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    NOTES

    1. Geoffrey of Franc Leuc was presumably a member of a family which had been in the Kingdom of Jerusalem from at least as early as the time of Baldwin II, and so was himself a polein, i.e. a man born in the East and not an immigrant. #Return to text at n. 1
    2. Aimery of Lusignan, constable of Jerusalem by 1181 and later king of Cypurs and Jerusalem. #Return to text at n. 2
    3. The four sons of Eschiva of Tiberias by her first husband. Ralph of Tiberias was later famous as a jurist. #Return to text at n. 3
    4. i.e. 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.. This is probably allegorical, being the period Jesus was on the cross. #Return to text at n. 4
    5. St. Martin of Tours is sometimes called "callidus". July 4th , a day noted in this country for other reasons, is celebrated in the Roman Church for the saint's ordination and translation. #Return to text at n. 5
    6. This is not in the portion translated here, but to be found in the printed edition of Le Mas Latrie, p. 115. #Return to text at n. 6
    7. Boniface of Montferrat is famous for his leadership of the 4th Crusade rather later. Presumably the reference here as elsewhere in the chronicle is to his brother, William 1135-88. #Return to text at n. 7

    8. Bernard Hamilton, "The Elephant of Christ: Reynald of Chatillon", Studies in Church History 15 (1978), 97-108 traces the career and impact of the man who has most claim to have brought about the Hattin Campaign and the end of the First Latin Kingdom. #Return to text at n. 8




    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Source.

    http://falcon.arts.cornell.edu/~prh3/259/texts/ernoul.htm

    This translation is taken with very minor amendments from a Beta version made by Peter Edbury c. 1975 of the old edition by Le Mas Latrie, pp. 62-9. For a real scholarly translation from Ruth Morgan's critical edition, see now Peter Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade (Scolar Press: Aldershot, Hants., 1996).

    © Translation by Paul Hyams of Cornell University. See his home page/copyright page. Prof Hyams indicates that the translations are available for educational use. He intends to expand the number of translations, so keep a note of his home page.
     
  5. byzantine warrior

    byzantine warrior Autokratos Konstantinou

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    Are there any byzantines in the movie???
     
  6. kartaron

    kartaron Hunter / Gatherer

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    Baldwin IV is played by a masked and uncredited Ed Norton. Other than that I am not sure.
     
  7. Mububban

    Mububban Administrator Staff Member

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    Yeah, considering he couldn't use his face, he did a great job acting with his head and body and voice. When he beats on Reynald, he expresses so much rage - at those whod efy him, at his own state of being, at the plots of those who would start a war. He expresses so much, great job.
     
  8. Cudgel

    Cudgel The name says it all

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    that was Ed Norton? whoa. he did a good job as a leper.
    I rember reading a few popel saying how unbeleivable that balian could have beome so good quickly. makes sense that there a long gap of time. takes a while to get any where on horseback and ship.
    Any thoughts on the "posta del falcon" thing in the begining an the style of sword being used? I heard that the swords and terminology were actualy from a century or so later.
     
    Last edited: Jun 4, 2005
  9. Senekha

    Senekha <a href="http://photobucket.com" target="_blank"><

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    I'm going to see the movie tonight - I'll post my thoughts tomorrow or the next day.
     
  10. Obi-Wan Kenobi

    Obi-Wan Kenobi New Member

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    i seen kingdom of heaven opening day .. with beren.. and it was awsome..
     
  11. Justice

    Justice New Member

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    The movie was okay. It had numerous and extremely serious historical errors in it.

    My biggest problem was the very unfriendly and extremely modern take on religion. All the good people in this movie were either non-religiousor had a very thin take on religion. All the ones who were religious were almost insidiously evil.

    They also whitewashed Salah-Hadin to a ridiculous level. First off the guy was barbarian. Survivors of the Battle of Hattin were tortured to death. Second he didn't just let the people of Jerusalem go freely, he made them pay a ransom. Those who couldn't (in the tens of thousands) were sold into slavery.

    In doing so Ridley Scott made the villian a weak villian and made the defenders really not the rightful occupiers of Jerusalem though the Crusades were a response to Muslim aggression. I loved the weapons, the armour, and the locations of the film. But that's in.

    On a plus note Bloom has finally been able to shake off his pretty boy roles.
     
  12. Cudgel

    Cudgel The name says it all

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    I lieked it mainly for the armas and armor, unhistorical swords but still Iloved the fighting.
    But honestly if the characters had been prtrayed with a level of religiousness that their historical counterparts ahd I doubt many in a modern audeicne woul have had much to find common ground with.
     
  13. Kellarly

    Kellarly Snow Merchant

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    After seeing it, I honestly thought, though the film was well shot and the costumes etc were all well and good, Scott is still trying put 22st century beliefs into the past.

    All sides were portrayed as far too 'nice'. Sure Saladin wasn't exactly a nice guy, but then again, neither were his opponents. A completely accurate film would be very very brutal and neither side would come out of it with much credit.

    Posta di Falcone, IIRC, comes from an Italien manuscript by Vadi, a teacher of swordsmanship. I believe it was written mid 14th Century (i'm double checking as I write), so it 'might' have been around then, due to the fact that swordsmanship developed over a great many years, but it seems unlikely, as lonsword only became more common around 150 years later.

    It really bugged me though, sat there watching it and Neeson goes on about the Posta di Falcone, I'm there thinking 'Cool, actual WMA in a film" then the usual bash bash bash follows...oh well at least they tried i suppose...
     
  14. Anduril

    Anduril Flame of the West

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  15. Cudgel

    Cudgel The name says it all

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    yeah but you will see Bloom using a few other posta/<insert german word for gaurd, very sad I dont know it seeing how I study german longsword> later on agsinst that arab knight.
    And remember its early on when bloom's charater doesnt know anybetter, so he has an excuse.

    and as much as I liked it i would really like a more historically accurate one to be made, and i thoguht it was histirically accurate until i read a whole bunch opf reveiws and threads on it, learnedmore from poepl complaing aobut the movie than from teh movie.
     
  16. Kellarly

    Kellarly Snow Merchant

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    Yeah he uses the Postas and (I forgot the damed word too) but he doesn't use any techniques that i can recognise, still that doesn't mean they didn't of course...
     
  17. The Empress

    The Empress Solitude and Strength...

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    I just have to comment...you seriously wore chain mail to the theater? That is so incredibly awesome!!! I loved the movie and cried, but had I seen that it would have made it 1000x's better!!!
     
  18. Mububban

    Mububban Administrator Staff Member

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    Yeah, not the most comfortable way to see a movie, but worth it for a free viewing, and getting to put on a showfight for an appreciative audience :)
     
  19. The Empress

    The Empress Solitude and Strength...

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    I want to do that!!!
     
  20. yanegient

    yanegient New Member

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    What is the name of the port to the kingdom of heaven?
     
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